Source: Project on Middle East Democracy
Author(s): Robert Springborg
All governments must obtain resources if they are to function. They differ according to the amount, sources, and types of resources they extract. Egypt under President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi is unusual, if not unique, in that the political economy model it has adopted requires resources remarkably disproportionate to the economy’s ability to provide them. Al-Sisi’s government acts as if it were presiding over a rentier state financed by hydrocarbon exports such as Saudi Arabia or over an authoritarian mercantile state benefitting from a sustained, favorable balance of trade fueled by expanding manufactured exports, like China.
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