Source: European Council on Foreign Relations
Author(s): Adel Abdel Ghafar
Original Link: https://www.ecfr.eu/specials/mapping_eu_leverage_mena/egypt
Since the removal of Hosni Mubarak as Egypt’s president in 2011, Europe’s objectives and influence in the country have undergone a series of fluctuations. Under Mubarak, Egypt had a fairly straightforward relationship with Europe. This relationship was grounded in the realpolitik of authoritarian stability – which European countries relied on to further their economic and security interests across the Middle East and north Africa – and on Mubarak’s friendships with several European leaders.
Egypt’s post-2011 transition initially seemed to create an opportunity for a deeper relationship in which Europe helped encourage a process of genuine political and economic reform. However, due to regional conflicts, the migration crisis, and Egypt’s reversion to authoritarianism under President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Europe has returned to its previous model of engagement with the country in the last few years.
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